In the course of partial melting and fractional crystallization of magma, U and Th are concentrated in the liquid phase and become incorporated into the more silica-rich products. Thus we produce the desired isochron. These atoms, with an odd number of neutrons, are called isotopes. Geologists assert that older dates are found deeper down in the geologic column, which they take as evidence that radiometric dating is giving true ages, since it is apparent that rocks that are deeper must be older. As far as I know, it's anyone's guess, but I'd appreciate more information on this. Assume D3, P3, and N3 in source 3, all zero. This chemical fractionation will most likely arise by some minerals incorporating more or less uranium or thorium relative to lead. For example, it's not clear to me that we need to worry about isochrons or whether U and U dates etc. So one could argue that any variations in Pb ratios would have to result from radioactive decay. When an unstable Uranium U isotope decays, it turns into an isotope of the element Lead Pb.
Bowen demonstrated that minerals crystallize from magma in a systematic fashion. I would suppose that in magma, due to reactions, most of the uranium would end up in the most stable compounds with the highest melting points. Radiometric dating relies on the principle of radioactive decay. Radiometric dating is used to estimate the age of rocks and other objects based on the fixed decay rate of radioactive isotopes. Therefore, by measuring the ratio of lead to uranium in a crystal of zircon, you can tell how much uranium there originally was in the crystal, which, combined with knowing the radioactive half-life of uranium, tells you how old the crystal is. Other events on earth can be dated equally well given the right minerals. Then you have to remember that sometimes one has repeated melting and solidification, introducing more complications. Still, the creationist task is not finished by proposing all of these mechanisms for invalidating radiometric dating. Measurement of N, the number of 14 C atoms currently in the sample, allows the calculation of t, the age of the sample, using the equation above. Suppose B has concentrations P2, D2, and N2. Due to some published anomalies, I don't think we know that they have any clear relationship to the assumed dates. Another factor to consider. The decay constants for most of these systems have been confirmed in other ways, adding strength to our argument for the age of the earth. So we see that it is actually not much harder to get an isochron yielding a given age than it is to get a single rock yielding a given age. To produce isochrons having a variable N p , a mixing of three sources would suffice. I even read something about geologists trying to choose crystals without impurities by visual examination when doing radiometric dating. I think this is really the weak spot of radiometric dating. I'm not speaking of evidences based on erosion or the lack of it, or other kinds of evidence, but rather on evidences relating to the radiometric dates and the concenrations of isotopes themselves. First, in order to have a meaningful isochron, it is necessary to have an unusual chain of events. Thus such mixings cannot be detected by a mixing test. Often one does not get a straight line for the values. The fact that the age we calculate is reproducible for these different systems is significant. Egyptologists, for example, created a relative chronology of pre-pharaonic Egypt based on increasing complexity in ceramics found at burial sites. Researchers who work with prehistoric tools made from flint — a hardened form of quartz — often use thermoluminescence TL to tell them not the age of the rock, but of the tool. This provides a built-in cross-check to more accurately determine the age of the sample.
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