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The updating of the representation of visual space

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Together, these results suggest that, when the horizontal location of a remembered saccade or pointing goal reverses left—right with respect to gaze direction, these physical shifts are accompanied by dynamic shifts in cortical activity from one hemisphere to the other. To determine this at a simple level, we compared the PPC activation for leftward and rightward target locations. These volumes are indicated schematically by the gray areas in Figure 3B—E. At that time, a closely related matter was the subject of a parallel debate by Goldberg and Andersen's groups: A failure to update this information or representation in a head—body fixed frame would be indicated by data points in the opposite white zones. The reverse is true for initial responses in the right parietal cortex Fig. In other words, the saccade—point data showed the same gaze-centered remapping pattern, with symmetrically yoked activation between the left and right PPC. Results in the saccade—point task were not as homogeneous as those in the saccade—saccade task. Figure 3B shows the mean response of the six subjects in the left parietal region for each of the four conditions in the saccade—saccade task. The activation of the region depends on the location of the remembered goal target relative to current gaze direction. This suggests that the parietal area identified here encodes and updates the remembered location of the saccade and pointing goals in eye-fixed coordinates. What happens after this saccade, in the second delay period? We tested this in experiment 2 using an event-related fMRI paradigm in which subjects produced intervening saccades between seeing a goal target and generating an eye or arm movement toward its remembered location Fig. The authors argued that this apparent updating of LIP spatial selectivity or future RF remapping; updating and remapping were, at this time, interchangeably used allows the brain to anticipate the perceptual outcome of saccadic eye movements and to stabilize our perception.

The updating of the representation of visual space


Figure 3, D and E , shows a similar analysis for the four conditions in the saccade—point task. The activity decays slightly during the first delay period, and then, when the first saccade occurs i. The right parietal region Fig. A subset of areas within the PPC shows topography for both saccade and pointing target locations. At that time, a closely related matter was the subject of a parallel debate by Goldberg and Andersen's groups: Goldberg's group directly challenged this interpretation as they showed that non-saccadic LIP neurons responded to the second target during the double- step saccade task, suggesting that these activities were not saccade-related but rather stimulus-related Goldberg et al. Orange, Voxels activated during saccades. Thus, the same PPC region showed topography for both saccades and pointing movements. However, it leaves open a question about the function of delay period encoding in the LIP area and why it is evident during the categorization, but not discrimination, tasks. The reverse is true for initial responses in the right parietal cortex Fig. However, the remembered location of this target would have to be remapped during the intervening saccade to correctly code its new location in eye-fixed coordinates. However, the more important post-saccadic remapping response is just as robust and clear in the pointing data as for the saccade data. This reflects the topographical nature of the region, as identified in experiment 1. In other words, the saccade—point data showed the same gaze-centered remapping pattern, with symmetrically yoked activation between the left and right PPC. Interestingly, the same set of PPC voxels also showed lateralized responses in the delayed-pointing task, as demonstrated by Figure 2C. For anatomic reference, the center of this region of interest for this one subject is indicated for the left and right hemispheres in D by the red and green crosses. What happens after this saccade, in the second delay period? In the parietal cortex, a topographic zone was located at a medial branch of the intraparietal sulcus, in agreement with results by Sereno et al. When we applied the same analysis to the saccade—point task data Fig. Together, these results suggest that, when the horizontal location of a remembered saccade or pointing goal reverses left—right with respect to gaze direction, these physical shifts are accompanied by dynamic shifts in cortical activity from one hemisphere to the other. Figure 3B shows the mean response of the six subjects in the left parietal region for each of the four conditions in the saccade—saccade task. The key question here is, does this area represent and update its information in a gaze-centered frame of reference? Results in the saccade—point task were not as homogeneous as those in the saccade—saccade task. The authors argued that this apparent updating of LIP spatial selectivity or future RF remapping; updating and remapping were, at this time, interchangeably used allows the brain to anticipate the perceptual outcome of saccadic eye movements and to stabilize our perception. Thus, all of our subjects encoded and updated visuospatial information for saccades in a gaze-centered reference frame.

The updating of the representation of visual space


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